PRB Topic Feed: Gender/Topics/Gender.aspxInternational Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Marks Ninth YearFeb. 6, 2012, marks the ninth commemoration of the International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. An estimated 100 million to 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and more than 3 million girls are at risk for cutting each year on the African continent alone.02/01/2012/Publications/Articles/2012/fgm-zero-tolerance-2012.aspxe7fbee9b-9de8-4784-beae-b2354ffb7871Women, Men, and WorkThis report describes changes in women's and men's paid and unpaid labor and assesses how women's and men's work lives have changed over the past three decades. 10/01/2004/Publications/Articles/2004/WomenMenandWork.aspxe7e13a34-74a6-4305-b883-724967db4594Afghan Women and Men Far Apart in LiteracyThe gap in male-female literacy in Afghanistan, which will undoubtedly widen as a result of the current government's draconian policies, offers a striking illustration of women's marginal status in that country. 06/01/2000/Publications/Articles/2000/AfghanWomenandMenFarApartinLiteracy.aspxe1031eec-abaf-496f-b10c-01dc20d044dbGender-Based Violence Against the Transgender Community Is UnderreportedThe Transgender Day of Remembrance on Nov. 20, 2011, and the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence from Nov. 25 to Dec. 10, 2011, are important opportunities to address the serious but often-ignored issue of gender-based violence (GBV) against transgender persons.12/05/2011/Publications/Articles/2011/gender-based-violence-transgender.aspxcc88829d-8800-48f8-9253-08b724ff3aedEgypt Bans Female Genital CuttingThe Egyptian Health Ministry issued a decree on June 28, 2007, that officially banned female circumcision. Although a similar order was already in place to prevent hospitals and medical doctors from carrying out the procedure, it is still widely performed by nonprofessionals in the community. 07/17/2007/Publications/Articles/2007/EgyptBansFGC.aspxc8fa25f0-97f2-46d6-b499-c4ec3076dca9In Rural Mali, Small Businesses Are Key to Women's Empowerment and Economic DevelopmentIn early 2011, Pietronella van den Oever, PRB visiting scholar, visited the Malian staff and villagers she worked with as part of a UN Food and Agriculture Organization rural training project in the mid-1970s. 10/24/2011/Publications/Articles/2011/mali-women-agriculture.aspxc1e9612e-a90e-4ed1-9d32-aba0b4e5aa3fCombating Cross-Generational Sex in UgandaCross-generational sex--or Sugar Daddy syndrome--is a pattern of sexual behavior between young women and much older men that brings increased health risks for young women. In Uganda, collaboration between the government, local organizations, and USAID is combatting this risky behavior.01/21/2009/Publications/Articles/2009/crossgenerationalsex.aspxb9a0b8df-eb91-4155-9f4a-984e8d5c258dDespite Wide-Ranging Benefits, Girls' Education and Empowerment Overlooked in Developing CountriesNumerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of girls' education on child and maternal mortality, health, fertility rates, poverty, and economic growth. Yet, less than 2 cents of every dollar spent on international development is directed specifically toward adolescent girls.04/27/2010/Publications/Articles/2010/girlseducation.aspxb8836276-2545-45c4-a84d-c54b46d4cf59Long-Held Assumptions Pose Obstacles in the Fight Against Domestic ViolenceOne of the biggest obstacles to a community-based intervention aimed at preventing domestic violence in Rakai, Uganda, was local assumptions that domestic violence was not a problem. 06/12/2007/Publications/Articles/2007/LongHeldAssumptionsPoseObstacles.aspxb87698f2-af29-4880-bf97-9a32c0a3edc0Addressing the Physical and Mental Health of Women and Adolescents Trafficked in EuropeWomen who have been subjected to trafficking and forced into service, including sex work, are more likely to suffer multiple physical and mental health problems than the general female population. But women can show vast improvement after only a month of professional care. 07/17/2007/Publications/Articles/2007/HealthofTraffickedWomen.aspxb5d7b3c5-cdec-46c0-9728-a6702e9e6c26