(2007) Africa’s young people will be the driving force behind economic prosperity in future decades, but only if policies and programs are in place to enhance their opportunities and encourage smaller families. A cycle of positive outcomes can result from having a larger, better-educated workforce with fewer children to support—children who will in turn be more educated and employable, provided that institutions are strengthened and viable economic policies are in place. This policy brief, “Africa’s Youthful Population: Risk or Opportunity?” outlines the opportunities and risks that can result from the large numbers of youth growing up in sub-Saharan Africa today.